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Kazakhstan , appello per fermare le forniture di armi dall’Italia

Appello davanti alla violenta repressione da parte delle forze di polizia e militari kazake nei confronti della popolazione e dei manifestanti. L’Italia ha in vigore dal giugno del 2012 un “Accordo di cooperazione militare” col Kazakistan e risultano essere in corso esportazioni di armi e sistemi militari italiani.

Kazakhstan's police officers detain a protester during a rally in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, Saturday, July 6, 2019. More than one hundred people have been detained at anti-government rallies in Kazakhstan on Saturday amid a continuing wave of public discontent over a perceived orchestrated handover of power. (AP Photo)
Riot police officers prepare to stop demonstrators during a protest in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2022. Demonstrators denouncing the doubling of prices for liquefied gas have clashed with police in Kazakhstan's largest city and held protests in about a dozen other cities in the country. (AP Photo/Vladimir Tretyakov)
Demonstrators gather in front of police line during a protest in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2022. Demonstrators denouncing the doubling of prices for liquefied gas have clashed with police in Kazakhstan's largest city and held protests in about a dozen other cities in the country. (AP Photo/Vladimir Tretyakov)
A demonstrator gives back a shield to a riot police officer during a protest in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2022. Demonstrators denouncing the doubling of prices for liquefied gas have clashed with police in Kazakhstan's largest city and held protests in about a dozen other cities in the country. (AP Photo/Vladimir Tretyakov)
Demonstrators stand in front of police line during a protest in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2022. Demonstrators denouncing the doubling of prices for liquefied gas have clashed with police in Kazakhstan's largest city and held protests in about a dozen other cities in the country. (AP Photo/Vladimir Tretyakov)
Riot police block demonstrators during a protest in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2022. Demonstrators denouncing the doubling of prices for liquefied gas have clashed with police in Kazakhstan's largest city and held protests in about a dozen other cities in the country. (AP Photo/Vladimir Tretyakov)
Demonstrators ride a truck during a protest in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2022. Demonstrators denouncing the doubling of prices for liquefied gas have clashed with police in Kazakhstan's largest city and held protests in about a dozen other cities in the country. (AP Photo/Vladimir Tretyakov)
In this image taken from footage provided by the RU-RTR Russian television, Kazakhstan's soldiers guard a check point in Kazakhstan, Friday, Jan. 7, 2022. The President of Kazakhstan said Friday he authorized law enforcement to open fire on
People walk past cars, which were burned after clashes, on a street in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Friday, Jan. 7, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult. (AP Photo/Vasily Krestyaninov)
Kazakhstan soldiers patrol a street after clashes in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Friday, Jan. 7, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult. (AP Photo/Vasily Krestyaninov)
Kazakhstan soldiers select flash grenades as they prepare to stop protesters, in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Thursday, Jan. 6, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult.(Vladimir Tretyakov/NUR.KZ via AP)
Kazakhstan soldiers prepare to stop protesters in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Thursday, Jan. 6, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult.(Vladimir Tretyakov/NUR.KZ via AP)
An armed riot police officer detains a protester during a security anti-terrorists operation in a street after clashes in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Jan. 8, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult. (AP Photo/Vasily Krestyaninov)
In this handout photo released by Russian Defense Ministry Press Service, Belarusian peacekeepers ride an armored personnel carrier as they leave a Russian military plane at an airfield in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Jan. 8, 2022. As Kazakhstan struggles to cope with an increasingly violent uprising this week, it has turned for help to a Russian-led security bloc, the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Thousands of Russian troops have now been dispatched to Kazakhstan to help secure strategic facilities. (Russian Defense Ministry Press Service via AP)
Kazakhstan's soldiers guard a road in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Jan. 8, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult.(Vladimir Tretyakov/NUR.KZ via AP)
Kazakhstan's traffic police and soldiers control the road in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Jan. 8, 2022. Kazakhstan's president authorized security forces on Friday to shoot to kill those participating in unrest, opening the door for a dramatic escalation in a crackdown on anti-government protests that have turned violent. The Central Asian nation this week experienced its worst street protests since gaining independence from the Soviet Union three decades ago, and dozens have been killed in the tumult.(Vladimir Tretyakov/NUR.KZ via AP)
In this handout photo released by Russian Defense Ministry Press Service, A Russian peacekeeper looks as vehicles of Russian leave an airport of Almaty, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Jan. 9, 2022. As Kazakhstan struggles to cope with an increasingly violent uprising this week, it has turned for help to a Russian-led security bloc, the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Thousands of Russian troops have now been dispatched to Kazakhstan to help secure strategic facilities. (Russian Defense Ministry Press Service via AP)
In this handout photo released by Russian Defense Ministry Press Service,Russian peacekeepers wait to leave an airport of Almaty upon their arrival, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Jan. 9, 2022. As Kazakhstan struggles to cope with an increasingly violent uprising this week, it has turned for help to a Russian-led security bloc, the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Thousands of Russian troops have now been dispatched to Kazakhstan to help secure strategic facilities. (Russian Defense Ministry Press Service via AP)
A car windshield is stained with blood following clashes in the central square blocked by Kazakhstan troops and police in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Monday, Jan. 10, 2022. The National Security Committee, Kazakhstan's counterintelligence and anti-terrorism agency, said that the situation in the country has

 L’Osservatorio Permanente sulle Armi Leggere e le Politiche di Sicurezza e Difesa (OPAL) e la Rete Italiana Pace e Disarmo chiedono che venga immediatamente sospesa ogni fornitura di armi al governo e sia sospeso ogni accordo militare con lo Stato del Kazakistan. La legge 185/90 che regolamenta la materia vieta espressamente l’esportazione di armi e materiali militari a Paesi i cui governi sono responsabili di gravi violazioni dei diritti umani.   

L’Italia ha in vigore dal giugno del 2012 un “Accordo di cooperazione militare” col Kazakistan e risultano essere in corso esportazioni di armi e sistemi militari italiani. Secondo i dati ufficiali delle Relazioni governative al Parlamento esaminati da OPAL negli ultimi dieci anni l’Italia ha autorizzato esportazioni di armi e materiali militari al Kazakistan per oltre 1,7 milioni di euro. Si tratta principalmente di “armi e armi automatiche” e “munizioni”. Nel solo 2020 (ultimo anno per cui è possibile reperire i dati) il Kazakistan ha acquistato munizioni Fiocchi (32.000 cartucce calibro 5.56 e 4.015 cartucce cal. 12 per canna liscia) e armi per uso militare dalla Beretta (28 pistole mitragliatrici PMX calibro 9×19 con numerose parti di ricambio e caricatori supplementari). 

Secondo le statistiche del commercio internazionale, nel 2020 l’Italia ha effettivamente esportato in Kazakistan oltre 465.000 dollari di armi e munizioni, tra le quali è possibile che ci siano munizioni ad uso delle forze di polizia.  
    
Negli scorsi giorni la stampa nazionale ed estera ha dato conto della dura repressione messa in atto dal governo del Kazakistan per fermare le proteste popolari contro l’aumento del prezzo del gas. Il 7 gennaio 2022 in un discorso alla tv il presidente Tokayev ha chiesto alle forze di sicurezza di sparare senza preavviso in caso di ulteriori disordini, dopo le proteste e le violenze dei giorni precedenti. Lo stesso presidente, che il 5 gennaio aveva dichiarato lo stato di emergenza in alcune aree del Paese, ha parlato di “centinaia” di morti. Fonti di polizia ammettono migliaia di arresti e almeno decine morti. Nel paese la repressione ha riguardato anche i giornalisti, mentre le autorità stanno limitando l’accesso a Internet.
Sulla situazione in Kazakistan è intervenuta anche l’Alto Commissario delle Nazioni Unite ai diritti umani, Michelle Bachelet, che ha esortato le forze di sicurezza e i manifestanti ad astenersi dalla violenza e a cercare una soluzione pacifica. 

L’Osservatorio OPAL è già intervenuto in passato sulle forniture militari italiane al Kazakistan, in particolare segnalando l’incontro tra l’amministratore delegato della Beretta e l’allora presidente kazako Nazarbayev durante la fiera di materiale militare KADEX tenutasi ad Astana nel marzo 2012, a cui seguirono importanti ordinativi di materiale militare che è poi andato in dotazione anche alle forze speciali del Kazakistan. Le relazioni commerciali tra Italia e Kazakistan si sono poi intensificate, anche dopo il “rapimento” della signora Shalabayeva e della figlia, episodio per il quale sono stati condannati in primo grado per sequestro di persona sei funzionari e agenti della Polizia di stato, anche nell’ambito militare a seguito del già citato accordo di cooperazione sottoscritto nel 2012. La Rete Italiana Pace e Disarmo ha sottolineato in vari casi come tali accordi, spesso con scopi delineati in maniera generica che consentono una maggiore agibilità all’industria delle armi, possano costituire uno strumento che favorisce l’export di natura militare indebolendo sia il controllo sugli accordi di vendita sia il quadro di riferimento dei criteri di esclusione previsti dalla Legge. Per tali motivi, ed in particolare nelle situazioni problematiche come quella di questi giorni in Kazakistan, sarebbe necessario rivederne termini e meccanismi, oltre che la portata di applicazione nel contesto di controllo del commercio internazionale di armamenti previsto anche dal Trattato ATT.

FOTO AP

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